Nuno Crato

Professor, University of Lisbon



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What PISA, TIMSS and Other International Studies Really Say About Education

If you want to look at international studies such as PISA, it is a good idea to skip the prefaces and second-hand accounts and dig into the data and technical reports. Then, we will see that myths about phenomenon-based learning and the so-called 21st century skills do not hold. Good national results need an ambicious and clear curriculum, aligned quality materials, students’ regular assessment, support to all, vocational paths, and flexibility.


Nuno Crato is Professor in the University of Lisbon and current President of Iniciativa Educação. Portuguese Education Minister from 2011 to 2015 and founding organizer of Lisbon Economics and Statistics of Education, he recently edited Improving a Country’s Education: PISA 2018 Results in 10 Countries (Springer 2021).